Everything south and southeast of us is called Ta-netjer, or God's Land. Within this, Nubia is our nearest neighbor. We call it Ta Seti, or the Land of the Bow, because they are famous for their archers. We also call them Ta-Nehesy, for Nehesy means "Nubian." Nubian desert nomads are called Iuntiu, or Iuntiu-setiu (Nubian bowmen).

Nubia, or Ta Nehesy, extends from the first cataract of the Nile River onward, and it extends east to the Red Sea, and west to the Libyan Desert. It has a Lower and an Upper section. The northern part, or Lower Nubia, is called Wawat. The southern part starts at the Second Cataract. Other parts of Nubia are called Irtjet, Zatju, and Kaau. Yam is around the Fifth or Sixth Cataract.

In the eastern desert, between us and the Red Sea, is Medja. The Nubians there are called the Medjay. They are good warriors and have been mercenaries for us since the Sixth Dynasty.

We have had contact with Nubia since Djer's time. Khafre, Menkaure, Userkaf, Sahure, Neferirkare, Djedkare, Pepi I, Merenre, and Pepi II have all been active trading with Nubia. In Sahure's time, trading was especially active. We import gold, ostrich eggs and feathers, lion and leopard skins, elephant tusks, cowry shells, ebony, incense, and gum Arabic. Because they have little fertile land, we export corn, oil, honey, and clothing to them.

Nubians live in low-built houses on the edges of rivers, water hoes, and channels, and their king is at Qustul in northern Nubia.

Duran, Jimmy. (1996). Nubian Chronology. Tour Egypt. Available at: http://touregypt.net/historicalessays/nubiac1.htm

Duran, Jimmy. (1996). The Geography of Nubia. Tour Egypt. Available at: http://touregypt.net/historicalessays/nubiae1.htm

Kamil, Jill. (1996). The Ancient Egyptians: Life in the Old Kingdom. Cairo, Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press.

Manley, Bill. (1996). The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Egypt. New York: Penguin Books.

Nubia. Britannica.com. Available at: http://www.britannica.com/bcom/eb/article/5/0,5716,57845+1,00.html

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To travel to Punt, keep moving down this page.

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Exotic, faraway Punt is east of Upper Nubia, and is on the Red Sea. Earlier, Punt was only approachable by sea, but lately, we have caravans on foot with pack-donkeys that travel old river channels for months to reach it. We import incense, gold, cynocephalous baboons, resins, and spices. Male Puntites wear kilts that end just above the knees, and they usually have long, thin beards.

Duran, Jimmy. (1996). The Geography of Nubia. Tour Egypt. Available at: http://touregypt.net/historicalessays/nubiae1.htm

Kamil, Jill. (1996). The Ancient Egyptians: Life in the Old Kingdom. Cairo, Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press.

Watson, Philip J. (1987). Costume of Ancient Egypt. New York: Chelsea House Publishers.

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Travel to Nubia or Byblos.